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NO.19 (Octorber 1, 2004)
2004/10/01


Speech at the Welcoming Banquet for the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties

Broadening Exchanges Among Asian Political Parties and Promoting Common Development Throughout the Region

Beijing Declaration 2004

List of Participating Political Parties and Political Organizations

 

Speech at the Welcoming Banquet for The Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties

--Speech by Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President of the People's Republic of China, at a welcome banquet of the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties (ICAPP) held in Beijing on September 3, 2004.

First of all, on behalf of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese Government, I would like to express my sincere congratulations on the convening of the ICAPP in Beijing and extend a warm welcome to all the honored guests attending the conference.

Through the joint efforts of Asian political parties, the ICAPP has undergone four years of development during which it has come to provide an important arena where these parties can interact with each other. It has already become am important channel for promoting regional cooperation and development and an important link, through which the people of all Asian countries deepen their understanding, enhance their friendship, strengthen their mutual trust and cement their unity. This conference will focus on the theme of exchange, cooperation and development, and intensively discuss and release the Beijing Declaration on the consensus among Asian political parties. All this is a sign of the positive trend of continuously developing cooperation among these parties.

The 20th century was the one in which earthshaking changes took place in Asia. During those 100 years, the people of all Asian countries engaged in epic struggles to change their destinies. They first won national liberation and independence of their countries and then proceeded to make great achievements in economic development and social progress, exhibiting vitality for vigorous development. Entering the 21st century, peace, development and cooperation have already become dominant trends in Asia, Asia's economic development is becoming ever more vigorous, its ability to resist risk is increasing, and the prospects for peace and development are bright.

In order to lead its people in building their country well and continuously do a good job of satisfying, protecting and developing the fundamental interests of the vast majority of its people, a political Party must conform to the tide of the times, grasp opportunities for development, rely on the wisdom and power of the people, and take a road of development that conforms to its national conditions. China has already set the objectives for the first 20 years of this century to build even higher level of moderately prosperous society for the benefit of all of China's 1 billion plus people.

In order to achieve these objective, the CPC takes Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents'' as its guidance, conscientiously implement a concept of overall, coordinated and sustainable development that puts people's interests first, unwaveringly carries reform and opening up forward, continuously improves its methods of leadership and governance, does a better job of uniting and leading the Chinese people in their ongoing efforts to carry the modernization drive forward, brings about the complete reunification of the motherland, and safeguards world peace and promotes common development.

China will always unswervingly hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, maintain an independent foreign policy of peace and a principle of friendship and partnership with our neighbors, living in harmony with and sharing security with them and helping them prosper. It will also respect the principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect and noninterference in each other's internal affairs in its party-to-party contacts, earnestly and sincerely develop comprehensive cooperative relations with all countries and contacts with all political parties, which benefit the state-to-state and people-to-people relations. In its relations with' all Asian countries China will always engage in political contacts on the basis of equality and mutual trust, mutual benefits economically and win-win agreements, cultural exchanges on the basis of learning from each other, and maintain security through dialogue and cooperation. China will work hard to achieve sustained peace and common prosperity in Asia.

China cannot develop without Asia, and Asia cannot prosper without China. The CPC is willing to strengthen its exchanges and cooperation with all Asian political parties and enter a new phase in Asia's rejuvenation hand in hand with them. We believe that with the joint efforts of all the political parties here in attendance, the Third 1CAPP certainly can achieve positive results and contribute to prosperity and progress in Asia.

 

Broadening Exchanges Among Asian Political Parties and Promoting Common Development Throughout the Region

--The speech by Chinese Vice President Zeng Qinghong, also Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee at the opening ceremony of the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties (ICAPP) September 3, 2004.

In the cool weather of this beautiful autumn, we welcome to beautiful Beijing all the guests and delegates attending the ICAPP. On behalf of the CPC and the Chinese Government, I would like to extend my sincerest welcome to all of you present here and offer my warm congratulations on the convocation of this conference.

The ICAPP, established in September 2000, is a great undertaking in which Asian political parties adjust to the contemporary trend of peace and development, keep up with the deepening regional cooperation in Asia, and widen their inter-national exchanges and cooperation. Over the past four years, two successful sessions of the ICAPP have been held. The ICAPP is becoming an important platform for furthering exchanges and cooperation among Asian political parties and promoting regional development and prosperity. I believe that with its theme of "Exchange, Cooperation and Development," this session of the ICAPP will surely be a great occasion for discussing the great issues of peace and development, exploring the road of friendly cooperation, increasing regional cooperation, and exchanging experiences in building our parties and governing our countries. I'm sure this session will also raise the level of exchanges and cooperation among Asian political parties and their joint efforts to seek development to a new high.

Asia is a continent with a long history and magnificent civilization. Although Asian countries have different social systems, history and culture and different levels and models of economic development, these differences are not obstacles to increasing our exchanges, building consensus and strengthening cooperation on a foundation of common respect for diversity. China had a popular song entitled "The Valiant Spirit of Asia," whose lyrics go, "Our Asia! Its mountains are like a head held high; its rivers flow like warm blood. Our Asia! Its trees intertwine their roots together; even its clouds join like shaking each other's hands." Our Asia's history and culture have unique charm and grace. It was in Asia in the 1950s that the renowned Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the 10 Principles of Bandung were born. These principles have become the norms of action on the basis of which countries with different social systems respect each other, seek common ground while shelving differences and discuss issues as equals. The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence with so great a vitality and so wide an applicability have generated, are generating and will continue to generate a large impact on promoting the establishment of a just and equitable new international political and economic order.

Throughout modern times, the people of Asian countries have tasted the bitterness of aggression and wars. What they understand best, therefore, is the value of peace and the importance of development. History demonstrates that exchanges and cooperation are essential for bringing peace and stability to Asia and that striving together is the only way in which Asian countries can prosper and develop. It is gratifying to see that since the end of the Cold War and especially since the Asian financial crisis in 1997, through the concerted efforts of Asian governments and political parties, a new kind of equal, pluralistic, open and mutually beneficial regional cooperation has been gradually taking shape, and many kinds of Asian regional organizations and mechanisms for multilateral cooperation have been developing continually. At present, the overall situation of Asia is generally stable, the economy is maintaining sound growth and regional cooperation is steadily deepening. Asia's share of the world economy and its influence and role in international affairs are on the increase. An age-old Asia is becoming rejuvenated, and a brand-new Asia is vigorously ascending. We have full confidence in Asia's prospects for development in the 21st century. Asia possesses the most energetic economic entities, the emerging markets with the greatest potential and the largest energy resources in the world. We firmly believe that if it continues to foster and cherish its cultural tradition of peaceful development, always acts in accordance with the norms of good-neighborliness and friendship and handles international relations better, Asia will surely make an even greater contribution to the lofty causes of world peace and development in the 21st century.

In the 21st century, Asia's peace and development are confronted with both rare opportunities and difficult challenges. In the world today peace and development remain the themes of the times, but the world is far from tranquil. Hegemonism and power politics are manifesting themselves in new ways; terrorist activities are still at a serious level; and violence and local wars sometimes break out due to ethnic conflicts or religious disputes. They all threaten the security and stability of Asia. The population explosion, the waste of resources and environmental pollution as well as the ever-increasing disparity between the rich and the poor and the digital divide hinder the development of Asian countries. In the new situation in which opportunities and challenges, hope and difficulty coexist, Asian governments and political parties need to use their political wisdom, formulate policy measures and take real action to make the most of the situation while avoiding its dangers and achieve mutual benefits and common development by broadening cooperation.

The laws of human development tell us that peace is a prerequisite for development, development is an important guarantee for peace, and win-win cooperation is necessary for peace and development. Further increasing exchanges, dialogue and cooperation among Asian countries; promoting the peace, stability and development of the region; working for the well-being of its people is not only the explicit theme of this session but also the historical duty of all Asian governments and political parties. I would like to take this opportunity to put forward the following four proposals.

First, we should seize opportunities to continually expand the new channels for regional and multilateral cooperation. Multilateral cooperation needs many platforms, and common development needs everyone's participation. The trends of deepening economic globalization and increasing regional cooperation provide Asian countries opportunities for multilateral cooperation. We should improve the mechanisms for dialogue, cooperation and discussion among Asian governments on the basis of the principles of diversification and gradual progress. At the same time, we should pay great attention to and make full use of the unique role political parties, parliaments and mass organizations in the various countries have in carrying out regional dialogue and cooperation. If they all make their best efforts and each does what it can do best, we can bring about wider, deeper and more enduring and effective regional dialogue and cooperation in Asia.

Second, we should continue to seek common ground while shelving differences, and constantly open new avenues to find more common ground. We believe that neither differences in ideology and social systems nor lingering historical problems should be obstacles to expanding regional dialogue and cooperation. Properly handling these problems will be a sign of our political wisdom. We hope that Asian governments and political parties will continue to be oriented to the world and the future, take responsibility for their history, be responsible to their people, respect each other's interests and concerns, and seek common ground in a constructive way. We hope that they will pursue cooperation instead of confrontation, seek accord through consultation instead of imposing their will on others, reconcile differences instead of causing troubles, work together to become stronger instead of profiting at others' expense, and try to bring about win-win cooperation.

Third, we should constantly strengthen mutual trust and work hard to find new models for regional security and cooperation. We can dispel suspicion only by building mutual trust; we can all enjoy peace only through cooperation. We hope that in response to the complicated and profound international changes, all Asian countries will set common security as their goal and develop a new conception of security based on mutual trust and benefit, equality and cooperation. We hope that on the basis of the Charter of the United Nations and the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, they will resolve conflicts through dialogue on an equal footing, eliminate differences through friendly consultation, settle disputes through mutual understanding and accommodation, and work hard to create a political and security environment for our regional development that is peaceful and harmonious.

Fourth, we should focus on working together to become stronger in order to usher in a new stage of reciprocity and common development. Shutting our countries to the rest of the world only makes us fall behind; we can achieve common development only by working together to become stronger. In order to promote the development of the regional economy, all Asian countries should strengthen economic cooperation, expand mutual investment, increase the flow of technology and personnel, progressively open their markets to each other, gradually eliminate trade barriers, solve problems arising in the course of economic cooperation and resource exploitation through consultation, and work to raise regional economic and technological cooperation to a new level of institutionalization and standardization.

Political parties play an extremely important role in Asian countries' politics, economy, culture and foreign relations. In the past, many of them led their people in fighting for national liberation, defending national independence and opposing foreign interference. Today, Asian political parties are working hard to develop their national economies, promote modernization and revitalize their countries. The experience they have gained in serving their countries and in improving themselves is well worth learning and drawing upon.

At this point, I would like to briefly introduce the CPC's history and the present circumstances to you. The CPC ascended the stage of history at the beginning of the 20th century at a time when China was in a national and social crisis and the people of all China's ethnic groups rose in a torrent of opposition to imperialism and feudalism. Alter 28 years of difficult struggle and sacrifice, our Party completed the mission of the new-democratic revolution and achieved national independence and the liberation of the Chinese people. After New China was established, our Party set up a people's democratic dictatorship as China's form of government. It set up a basic socialist system and established an independent and relatively complete national economic system on top of the foundation of poverty and ignorance bequeathed by old China. China entered into a new historical period of reform and opening up and the socialist modernization drive at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978. The CPC united and led the people through difficult exploration onto a new road of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The country's economic and scientific strength increased, and its population of nearly 1.3 billion made the historic leap from subsistence living to having a moderately well-off standard of living. In 2002, the 16th National Congress of the CPC set the objective of concentrating our efforts to raise this standard even higher in all respects and ensure all of China's 1 billion plus people can enjoy life at this standard. To achieve this objective, we formulated the following policies to give impetus to all aspects of this work: First, to unwaveringly carry out economic and political restructuring with the basic goals of developing the socialist market economy and socialist democracy to provide institutional guarantees for building a moderately well-off society in all respects; second, to steadfastly carry forward the outstanding traditions of the Chinese culture and widely absorb the beneficial fruits of world culture to provide intellectual support for building such a society; and third, to comprehensively coordinate relations between all kinds of interests, including coordinating urban and rural development, regional development, economic and social development, the harmonious development of man and nature, and coordinating domestic development with opening up to provide social conditions for building such a society.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is socialism that domestically constantly develops socialist productive forces and that internationally advocates peace. The simplest explanation of the socialist road with Chinese characteristics is that as a socialist country, China is resolved to take a road to develop itself while safeguarding world peace when peace and development are the themes of the times and also to use its development to promote world peace.

Peace and development in China are beneficial to peace and development in Asia and the whole world. Our friends can all see that China's vigorous development over the last 20 years has not only brought happiness to the Chinese people, but also brought opportunities to countries in Asia and throughout the world; and has not only constituted a positive impetus for reorganizing productive factors and relocating production on a worldwide scale, but also played a constructive role in promoting the sound development of the regional economy.

The CPC summarizes its main tasks in the 21st century as constituting three tasks: To carry the modernization drive forward, to complete the reunification of the motherland, and to safeguard world peace and promote common development. This summary is a concentrated expression of the CPC's efforts to domestically firmly focus all its attention on development and internationally resolutely work with the people of all countries to promote the lofty cause of world peace and development. The CPC's efforts to bring about both the unity of socialism with patriotism and the unity of self-development with the common development of all people are embodied in these tasks.

Asia occupies nearly one-third of the world's land area, and it has more than half of the world's population. Peace and stability in Asia will not only benefit the people of Asia but will also be favorable to the whole world. Promoting peace, stability, development and prosperity of Asia and the world is a fixed objective of the Chinese Government and the CPC. We will always hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace and take the road of peaceful development. China will never seek hegemony or expansion. We will always focus on achieving peace, security, cooperation and prosperity in Asia, seek friendship and partnership with our neighbors, and carry out a foreign policy of living in harmony with our neighboring countries, sharing security with them and helping them prosper. Practice has proven that a strong, progressive and innovative CPC is the basis for guaranteeing that China will remain stable and keep developing. Practice will prove that a stable, developing and prosperous China will surely help promote peace and development in Asia and the world over.

Promoting cooperation among Asian political parties in the 21st century, conducting exchanges as equals on the basis of mutual respect, building consensus while setting aside differences, pursuing common development by increasing cooperation, and working hard to develop diverse and vigorous Asian civilizations are our common historical responsibilities. Let us work hard together to build an Asia that enjoys political stability, economic prosperity, cultural diversity and social harmony.

 

Beijing Declaration 2004

The Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties

September 5, 2004

1. We leaders and representatives of 81 political parties from 35 countries attended the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties (ICAPP) hosted by the Communist Party of China in Beijing, China, between September 3-5, 2004.

2. The ICAPP, established in September 2000, is a great undertaking in which Asian political parties adjust to the contemporary trend of peace and development, adapt to the rapid development of regional cooperation and expand international exchanges and cooperation among themselves. The ICAPP has become an important forum where legal political parties of sovereign Asian countries can exchange political ideas, seek political consensus and increase understanding and trust. It has also become a new channel and new mechanism through which political parties can play their unique role in promoting regional cooperation and mutual development. The Third ICAPP has injected new vigor into international exchanges among political parties of Asian countries.

3. "Exchange, Cooperation and Development" is not only the explicit theme of the Third ICAPP but also the unshakable historical duty of Asia's political parties and politicians. The leaders and representatives of the Asian political parties at this conference have carried out extensive discussion and exchanges of ideas on the three topics of regional security and multilateral cooperation, economic development and social progress, and party building and national development. The conference has been productive, and it has met the objectives of further strengthening mutual friendship, exchanges and cooperation, increasing mutual understanding, trust and consensus, and jointly safeguarding regional peace, stability and unity.

4. It has already become the common desire of the political parties, politicians and ordinary people of all Asian countries to adapt to the trend of the times, increase regional exchanges and cooperation and promote common development. Cooperation in Asia is not exclusive, nor is it directed at any third party. Asia should develop itself by opening up to the whole world and advance through contacts all over the world. We advocate resolving differences through dialogue and negotiation in accordance with the intent and spirit of the Charter of the United Nations, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the 10 principles of Bandung. We advocate gradually reforming the inequitable and unjust aspects of the current international order through mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation, energetically carrying forward the process of democratization in international relations and cooperatively promoting Asia's peace, stability, harmony and prosperity.

5. The rapid development of Asia has been aided by a peaceful environment. Maintaining the momentum of development requires the region's security and stability. In recent years, the overall situation in Asia has been stable and its main trend has been toward peace, development and cooperation. However, traditional and nontraditional security issues have become intertwined, and both new and old hot spots are still affecting the peace and tranquility of some countries and regions. The question of how to ensure the long-term peace and stability of Asia is a major issue that all Asian political parties and politicians should ponder deeply. We affirm refusing wars, aggressions and hegemony. We are committed to multilateral cooperation and believe that justice will ensure peace. We applaud the efforts Asian countries and political parties have made to peacefully resolve regional conflicts and crises, and advocate turning areas of disputes into areas of cooperation.

6. Terrorism, splittism and extremism have already become plagues that do harm to human society. We strongly condemn and oppose all forms of terrorism. We advocate strengthening cooperation among sovereign countries and between regional organizations in fighting against terrorism, taking steps to eliminate the root causes of terrorism while giving full play to the role of the United Nations. Double standards should not be practiced and the fight against terrorism must not be linked with any particular ethnic group or religion.

7. Asia is one of the most vigorously developing regions in the world and one of the most important areas for trade growth. We have great confidence in the development potential of the Asian economy. At the same time we fully recognize that the world's globalization trend has brought about opportunities and challenges to every country and the people. Asian countries can take advantage of their opportunities only by strengthening their cooperation, overcome their difficulties only by recognizing that they are all in the same boat, and thrive in the face of fierce global competition only by working together to make themselves stronger. It is a sacred obligation of all countries and political parties as well as the international community to eliminate poverty and achieve prosperity. We encourage governments of all countries to draw up poverty relief strategies, reinforce international cooperation and implement diversified measures to alleviate poverty in an effort to create a better world of common prosperity without destitution.

8. Energy issues are central to the economic security and sustainable development of all countries, and the safety of energy resources is a problem facing the entire international community. Cooperation in energy can become an important component of Asian regional cooperation. Countries in the region should expand dialogue and cooperation on the basis of the principles of mutual benefits and win-win solutions and jointly promote sustainable development in Asia.

9. We believe that all Asian countries should choose their own development path and development model in accordance with local conditions, strengthen coordination, exchanges and cooperation in the areas of economic and social development, and work to create an environment beneficial for development. We should work together to develop a new concept of development, explore new ways of thinking about development, expand the connotation of development, and work hard to promote coordinated and sustainable economic and social development, urban and rural development, and development of both human beings and nature throughout the region. They should take advantage of the favorable opportunities in the region that arise from the overall political stability, the continual economic growth and the deepening regional cooperation to increase economic cooperation, progressively open up markets to each other, resolve trade disputes through negotiation and promote the sound development of a multilateral trade system.

10. Asian countries have a radiant splendor of historical and cultural traditions, diverse social and political systems and different levels of economic development. We advocate strengthening dialogue among different civilizations, seeking common development through interactions and realizing a win-win situation by maximizing the consensus and setting aside the differences on the basis of fully respecting each other's historical traditions, cultural differences and diversified development paths.

11. Asian political parties bear a historic responsibility for developing their national economies, safeguarding social stability and promoting the development of democracy and legal systems. As all the countries in Asia progress toward modernization, their political parties should constantly adjust to the requirements of the development of the times. In order to achieve social and political stability and contribute to their country's modernization, political parties should promote clean and efficient government through vigorous measures of party building, and effectively integrate all the country's internal relationships by strengthening ties with the parliament, the government and the civil society.

12. Asian political parties, large or small, old or new, should be entirely equal, respect other's independence and self-determination, respect other's choices and practices, respect other's internal and external policies established on the basis of conditions in their respective countries, and refrain from interfering in other's internal affairs. Ideological differences should not be a barrier to contacts and cooperation among Asian political parties. Concerning differences and conflicts between parties, Asia's political parties should adopt the spirit of seeking common ground and reserving differences, resolving differences through dialogue and negotiation or temporarily setting them aside so that they do not affect the normal development of bilateral relations. We believe that Asian political parties should promote the sound and stable development of state-to-state relations through positive contacts and cooperation. All Asian political parties should continuously enrich the connotation and develop the potential for cooperation and make full use of their unique role in promoting economic development, advancing social progress and safeguarding regional security.

Finally, we wish to extend our heartfelt thanks to the distinguished Communist Party of China and its leaders for their energetic efforts and outstanding contributions that led to the successful convocation of the Third International Conference of Asian Political Parties.

 

List of Participating Political Parties and Political Organizations

(Up to August 28, 2004)

The Commonwealth of Australia

Liberal Party of Australia

The Republic of Azerbaijan

Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party

The People's Republic of Bangladesh

Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (Marxist-Leninist), Jatiya Party

Kingdom of Cambodia

Cambodian People's Party

Funcinpec Party

The Republic of Cyprus

Democratic Party

Progressive Party of Working People

Democratic Republic of East Timor

Frente Revolucionaria do Timor Leste Independente (FRETILIN)

The Republic of the Fiji Islands

United Fiji Party

The Republic of India

All India Forward Bloc, Bharatiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Nationalist Congress Party

The Republic of Indonesia

GOLKAR Party, Indonesia Democratic Party of Struggle,National Awakening Party, National Mandate Party, United Development Party

The Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran Parties House, Islamic Coalition Party, Islamic Labor Party of Iran, The Islamic Participation Front of Iran

Japan

Japan Communist Party (JCP), New Komeito Party of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan (DP J), The Social Democratic Party of Japan

The Republic of Kazakhstan

The Civil Party of Kazakhstan

The Oran Republican Political Party

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea

The Workers' Party

Republic of Korea

Democratic Labor Party, The Grand National Party, The Millennium Democratic Party, The URl Party

The Lao People's Democratic Republic

Lao People's Revolutionary Party

The Republic of Lebanon

Lebanese Communist Party

Malaysia

Malaysian Chinese Association, Malaysian Indian Congress, The People's Movement Party, United Malays National Organization (UMNO)

Mongolia

Citizens Will-Republican Party of Mongolia (CW-RP), Democratic Party of Mongolia, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party

The Union of Myanmar

Union Solidarity and Development Association

The Kingdom of Nepal

Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), National Democratic Party, Nepal Congress Party, Nepal Congress Party (Democratic)

New Zealand

National Party of New Zealand

New Zealand Labor Party

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), Pakistan People's Party

The Independent State of Papua New Guinea

National Alliance Party

Republic of the Philippines

Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP), Lakas-National Union of Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas CMD), Liberal Party, Nationalist People's Coalition, Partido Demokratiko-Sosyalista ng Pilipinas (PDSP), Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban Party), The Nacionalista Party

The Russian Federation

Communist Party of the Russian Federation

United Russia (Russia)

The Republic of Singapore

People's Action Party

The Democratic Socialist Republic of SriLanka

Communist Party of Sri Lank, People's Liberation Front (JVP), Sri Lanka Freedom Party, United National Party

The Syrian Arab Republic

The Arab Baath Socialist Party

The Republic of Tajikistan

Communist Party of Tajikistan

Party of Islamic Revival of Tajikistan

The Kingdom of Thailand

Thai Rak Thai Party, Thai Nation Party-in coalition, Democratic Party

The Republic of Turkey

Justice and Development Party

Turkmenistan

Democratic Party of Turkmenistan

The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam

The Communist Party of Viet Nam

The Republic of Yemen

The General People's Congress

(Note: Names of States and Political Parties are listed in alphabetical order of their English initials)

List of Participating Observers

African National Congress of South Africa Hanns Seidel Foundation of Germany Konrad-Adenauer-Stifung of Germany South African Communist Party

 

 

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